It is not possible to grasp the overreaction of the Meccans to the beginning of the Prophethood of God’s Messenger without considering the period before his Prophethood, for a complete contradiction is evident between the attitude of the Meccans before and after its annunciation to the Noble Prophet. For an accurate reading of the Meccan years it is necessary to understand the underlying reasons that the Meccans suddenly became his greatest enemy, when previously they had always referred to him by the honorific “the Trustworthy.” Qusayy ibn Kilab,23 sixth-generation ancestor of the Noble Prophet, made a series of important changes in the administration of Mecca that he took over from the Khuda’a, and reinstated a Ka’ba-centered life in Mecca. He virtually built Mecca anew and so as to establish on solid grounds the major and minor pilgrimages that had continued since the time of Prophet Abraham. He set up the tribes in new lodgings, starting with the Ka’ba surrounds and placing the tribes with greater male populations around the Ka’ba, while those with fewer male members able to fight were housed towards the valleys. The rationale behind this arrangement was to organize Mecca so as to be able to offer a thorough and faultless service to those who came for pilgrimage. To this end, each tribe was assigned a duty:24 providing food and water to the pilgrims (rifada and siqaya),25 command of troops in war (qiyada), possession of the keys and control of the Sanctuary (sidana), guarding the Ka’ba (hijaba), inter-tribal affairs or legation (sifara), carrying the standard in battle (liwa’), carrying the war banner (uqab), the tent in which donations for public emergency were collected (qubba), determining the value of pecuniary liabilities (ashnaq), presidency of divination (aysar), offerings to the Sanctuary (amwal muhajjara), bridling (a’inna), government (hukuma), use of an assembly for deliberation (nadwa), and consultation (mashwara). Each tribe controlled one or more of these services.
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